I’ve already discussed “The world in which IPv6 was a good design” provides a lot of really good background on the evolution of modern networks too.

Much Ado about Lightbulbs …

I’ve already discussed problems with IoT address resolution but I think it’s worth questioning a few more assumptions here.

We have a few problems with IoT

There’s different classes of IoT device, obviously: some devices have fewer constraints as they have more power available, and perhaps they are expensive and limited in number enough that putting a decent CPU on them isn’t a problem.

But let’s consider, for this article at least, things like lightbulbs and lightswitches. Normally, house mains wiring is quite complicated, with individual mains wiring run down the walls to each lightswitch, and then up to each lightbulb socket (or group thereof). This is time-consuming to set up, hard to change once the house is finished, and uses a lot of mains rated wiring. In Australia at least, even a circuit with a single 10W LED lightbulb is wired with 8A rated wiring capable of delivering a couple of kilowatts.

So, we could replace this whole archaic system with a single circuit daisy-chaining all the lights together and permanently on, and battery powered light switches which just stick or velcro to the walls. No in-wall wiring or big holes in the architraves required. But now we’ve got a hell of a lot of devices. Even in our relatively modest suburban place there’s about 20 switches and 30 light fittings. Do I really want to give each of them an IP address and deal with its software upgrades?

A quick review: What happens when I flick a lightswitch

Not only does all that take a while, it sends many WiFi frames each of which costs battery life.

Second Class Devices …

Sure, it’s a nice idea that your lightbulbs are Real Internet Citizens, but it’s holding us back. There’s fundamental differences between a battery powered lightswitch or temperature sensor and the servers the Internet was designed to connect together!

Instead, lets allow a gateway, so that IoT devices don’t have to do everything for themselves. This could be a small piece of software running on your (probably Linux based) router and using its authentication etc. Or it could be a standalone widget along the lines of an RPi, or a piece of software running on a server PC. All it has to do is provide a simple “configuration app” interface.

Each IoT device then relies on it for configuration to provide a gateway to the internet, and the app can route traffic within the house network.

Layer 2 Addressing

So if our devices aren’t Real Internet Computers what are they?

Eliminating DHCP / Duplicate Address Detection

Devices on WiFi (and Ethernet) in general already have a unique address … their factory-assigned MAC address. Sure, they can’t use it on the real Internet, but they can use it within a network segment. (IPX used to work this way too, back in the day …).

Eliminating DNS lookups

The gateway service can use a well known Multicast MAC to receive notifications from all L2IoT devices, thus no lookups need to be done.

Eliminating TCP handshake

Messages are limited to a single Ethernet frame, so segmentation and reassembly isn’t necessary anyway. Messages are idempotent, so if they aren’t acknowledged, they can simply be resent.

Eliminating HTTPS handshake

Devices aren’t connected directly to the Internet so risks are much reduced, but there’s still a need to protect them from eg: guests on your home WiFi. Perimeter security is not a good idea!

Rather than negotiating session keys, each L2IoT device has a fixed secret key, which is communicated to the gateway at configuration time. It can then use this key to encrypt each message in either direction using an appropriate algorithm.

Eliminating Wakefulness

Devices with limited power need to sleep much of the time, which means they can’t really be expected to respond to requests in a timely manner. Instead, the gateway can store-and-forward a single message per device … when the device periodically wakes it can request the stored message, respond to it, go back to sleep.

Configuring Devices

So, you buy your new lightswitch, take it out of the box, put in a couple of AAA batteries. How do you configure it?

WPS WiFi configuration

Joining the WiFi network is easy enough, using pushbutton WPS.
If a the L2IoT device has no knowledge of a network on startup, it goes straight into WPS mode, looking for routers ready to talk to it.

To prevent hijacking, the device must be physically reset before it will return to WPS mode and join a new router.

Secret Key Configuration

The device comes supplied with a QR code or similar containing the MAC address and the secret key. This code is entered into the configuration app to begin communication with the device, and causes the gateway to send a capabilities detection message to the device (see below)

(Alternatively, a PIN and key-exchange protocol could be used, but I’m trying to keep this super minimalist here. More work necessary?)

Configuration App

The app also records a human-readable description for the device so you can records its purpose or location. And the app can handle grouping devices, etc, so that you can gang multiple lightbulbs together to always have the same brightness, colour temperature, etc.


The devices send a capabilities message explaining what they have to offer, and the configuration app can then connect the devices together perhaps something like Node Red or Flobot. or just plain old Python :-)

Further Work

First step is to get raw sockets working on MicroPython and see if I can get a demo working on a couple of $1 ESP-01 modules …