Basic Mobile App Architecture

I want to discuss some weirder things on this blog, but I think it'd be a good idea to start off with an overview of how to build a very simple HTML5- or Native App friendly architecture.

1. First, UX

Design is not just what it looks like and feels like. Design is how it works.

Steve Jobs

Start here. Seriously. Applications exist to serve users, so the first thing you have to consider is who the users are and what they need. Some of those users will be the public interface, some will be the administrative interfaces, but all users appreciate a good design.

Storyboard the application out with lots of examples. Don't think of it as paper templates or badly drawn screenshots, it is a series of sketches of "scenes" from the "movie" of your application.

Use a whiteboard, or pencil and paper, or one of the many mockup tools or whatever works for you. Let the graphic designers agonize over the pixels, as they will.

2. Entities

There are only two hard things in Computer Science: cache invalidation and naming things.

Phil Karlton

At this point, I like to start thinking about entities, and how to name them.

Some entities are the obvious nouns:

  • a Player
  • a Board
  • a Piece

Others are not so obvious: moving a Piece could also be thought of as creating a new Move in the Game. Sometimes an entity represents a relationship between two other entities, where that relationship has properties of its own. Include notes on the relationships between entity types, and why.

It may seem silly to be arguing about names at this point, but at some point you may end up with a Competition, a Game, a Round and a Match, all of which are distinct entities with different purposes. You'll be glad you wrote up which was which before the backend team, the frontend team and the database schema get confused and use the same labels differently.

Write it up somewhere and stick to it.

3. Messages

All mass is interaction.

Richard P. Feynman

Typically, the next step is to start writing an actual database schema, or a a RESTful protocol, or a class hierarchy, or something along those lines.

But given the message-oriented world we find ourselves in client/server applications (or quantum physics), I think it helps to first map out the interactions, the messages sent at each step. So when you go from your login screen to your welcome screen, a message gets sent requesting a login and another message comes back with some login information.


I've done some further thinking on protocols and combining messages, leading to Tranquil APIs.

This is a good time to think about combining messages. If the UI always displays the top 5 news stories to the user when they first log in, you can save a request and a round-trip time by always including this information along with the confirmation that login was successful. Even networks with a lot of throughput can have lousy latency, so saving a round-trip may be enough to make your app noticably snappier. Additionally, your back-end may be able to service the requests in parallel for even lower latency.

Public API

You now have a list of messages and you can start thinking about how to implement them. For a web-based app, this comes down to:

Which of these techniques is appropriate for which of your message exchanges is beyond the scope of this post, although I intend to cover WebSocket programming a lot more at a later date. To support a wide range of browsers / devices you may need to provide a fallback: if there's no WebSocket available in the browser, use Long Polling. If Long Polling doesn't work in the user's network, use AJAX polling every 30 seconds. If everything is broken, redirect the user here..

Whether your public API should include an API version number is hotly contested, and I'm not going to go into it here.

4. Development!

Make a mess, clean it up!

Burrell Smith

Stub Back-End

At last, we get to write some code!

But it won't, at first, be very good code.

Which tool you use depends on which protocols you decided your API needed. I like to use Tornado because it is very simple and has good support for long poll and WebSocket. Node.js is popular too. But if PHP or is what you know best, do that.

You won't be connecting to a database or anything glamorous like that. Instead, write some tiny stubs for each handler in your API (example in Tornado):

class UserInfoHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):

    def get(self, user_id):
            'user_id': user_id,
            'name': 'John Doe %d' % user_id,

class MessageWSHandler(tornado.websocket.WebSocketHandler):

    def on_message(self, message):


The stub back-end isn't going to stay. But it provides a handy point of reference for the front-end developers while the real back-end is getting developed. Their AJAX calls are answered, albeit with useless pseudo-information, and instead of cut-and-pasting Lorem Ipsum all over the place they can have it handed to them by a server.

Between the storyboards, the API documentation and the stub back-end to play with, front-end development shouldn't be too hard. The data returned by the stub back-end is predictable, so you can easily set up tests with Selenium and/or something like Sauce Labs.

And you can develop HTML5 and native apps in parallel, so long as they all agree on the API.


Leave the stub back-end in place somewhere where the front-end guys can get to it, and start work on the real back-end. There's lots to consider here, with many different products to choose from. But to keep it simple I'd suggest you identify:

  • A disk-backed database which meets your indexing needs, SQL or otherwise (I'm fond of MongoDB)
  • A memory-based cache (for example memcache or Redis
  • Perhaps a message queue (eg: ØMQ)
  • A language & framework which makes it easy to bind them all together (eg: Tornado, Django, Node.js, Rails)

Once you've picked the database you can go back to your diagram of entity relationships and turn it into a schema ... for an SQL database this is probably a file full of SQL statements, for Django it is the file. For a lot of NoSQL databases there isn't a schema as such, but you can still write up a description of what goes where.

In general, it isn't a bad idea to keep the database normalized. Rather than denormalizing within the database, consider keeping such data only in the memory cache ... if the memory cache gets flushed, you can always regenerate the denormalization.

6. You Didn't Mention Agile Once!

The greatest challenge to any thinker is stating the problem in a way that will allow a solution.

—Bertrand Russell

This whole plan looks very, uh, waterfally. It isn't meant to be. Changes just have to be propagated down.

For this reason, I'd recommend putting the docs in the source code repository. To make a change, make a new branch, change what you need to and "bubble" the changes down through the steps above. So the branch ends up tying together the UX change, the message change, the API change, and the back- and front- end changes.

To make merging less painful, save the docs in a diffable text format like ReStructuredText or MarkDown. If you're feeling really extreme, you could save diagrams as GraphViz and XFig format, but that might be overkill. Saving individual diagrams as separate files with sensible names can be worthwhile though.