I have a need to encode a shared secret as something a regular person can type. Lots of applications do, sometimes for passwords or just to establish a shared secret. The difficulty is remembering and/or transmitting this information.
There’s a PGP Word List for this purpose, but quite a lot of these are long and hard to spell. I don’t want to be trying to explain how to spell “adroitness” down the phone.
Sure, if you wrote a specialized input method you could provide spelling autocompletion and/or error correction, but that’s not quite what I’m after: I’d like people to be able to type these phrases into a URL or text message or whatever and get it right first time.
The “long word list” has 7776 = 65 words of between 3 and 9 characters
with lots of consideration into removing homophones and profanity: check our their article.
They’re still 7 characters long on average, and some of them are pretty hard to spell
There’s also quite a lot of pairs of very similar words:
boogieman for example.
If I have to spell it out over the phone, it’s no longer helping.
The “short word list” of 1296 = 64 words is much closer to what I’m looking for, with lengths between 3 and 5 characters, 4.54 on average. That’s fewer bits per word, but slightly more bits per character typed (2.28, over 1.85)
There’s still some tricky words and some pairs I’m not happy about and 64 is not a terribly convenient number for binary computers, so I thought about going through by hand and trimming the list down to 1024 = 210 words, but being a Python hacker I figured there had to be an easier way.
There’s an ancient but still handy library called “soundex” which I remember using in Perl back in the 90s to look for possibly misspelt author names, etc. It reduces words to a much smaller symbol space based on their approximate pronunciation, eg:
soundex('hello') => 'h4' soundex('world') => 'w643' soundex('hell') => 'h4' soundex('hull') => 'h4' soundex('heel') => 'h4'
It is very lossy, but then again, so are telephone conversations. Perhaps it’d be useful.
There’s a Soundex library on PyPI
I mapped the 1296 short words through Soundex and that came up with 514 unique
soundex strings. Chucking away
t651 for reasons of political fraughtness
left me with 512 unique sounds, some of which had several words mapping to them.
How to choose which word from each set? There’s also a Word Frequency library on PyPI so why not just grab the most commonly used word for each soundex? This results in a neat list of 512 words, average length 4.6 characters, giving 1.95 bits per character typed, which is slightly worse than the EFF short word list but slightly better than the EFF long word list.
The PGP word list has one more trick up its sleeve: there’s actually two word lists and they’re used for alternating bytes. This means that you can never have the same word twice in a row, and provides easier error detection for missing words.
(They also have a neat trick going with different numbers of syllables, but my words are too short for that)
512 words is just right to split in half and use to encode 8 bit bytes.
As a bonus, the list splits neatly into
making the split pretty easy to notice.
Is there any project so small it doesn’t get a Github repo? Not this one.
It might become a PyPI module and/or an NPM module at some point too.
from soundex import Soundex from collections import defaultdict from wordfreq import word_frequency soundex = Soundex().soundex sound_words = defaultdict(set) with open('eff_short_wordlist_1.txt','r') as fh: for line in fh: word = line.split() sound = soundex(word) if len(sound) > 1: # and sound not in ('i245', 't651'): sound_words[sound].add(word) for word_set in sound_words.values(): if len(word_set) > 1: word_list = [ (word_frequency(word, 'en'), word) for word in word_set ] word_list.sort() print(word_list[-1][-1]) else: print(list(word_set))
aged acorn acre acts afar affix agent agile aging agony ahead aids aim alarm alike alive alone aloha aloft amend ample amuse angel anger apple april apron awake area army argue armed armor arson art atlas atom avert avoid bacon boots basil book bust baker balmy bunch broke barn both baton blade blank blast blog blend blimp blob blurt bully boned bunny broad bribe bring broil civil case city claim come canal candy chief card crazy carol carry crop cedar crown cost clay chump comic civic cold clamp clip class clasp clear cleft clerk cling cover craft cramp crank crisp crust cupid cycle deaf data deal draw duke doing dent drama dried down debt debug decaf decal decor drive dimly donor ditch drank dress drift drill dust equal early earth east eaten edge ebay even evoke essay eel elbow elder elk elm elude elves email emit empty emu enter envoy erase error erupt evade evict evil fable fact food fall false fancy fox femur found ferry fetal fetch fever fifth film fled final five flip fling flint flirt flyer foam frail from fresh fruit front frost gas going goal game gave grew genre gift glass given giver glad golf good grab green grant grasp grass grid grill habit help hull halt happy harm hug hasty hatch hate haven hazel herbs hers human hunt hump hung hurry hurt issue icing icon igloo image ion iron item ivory ivy job jam juice july jet jolt judge jump junky jury keep kick kept kilt king kitty knee knelt koala ladle late lure lake lunch land level large last latch left legal line liver life lilac lily limb lunar music maker mold many mango manor move march mardi marry match mouth most motor mount mulch mule mumbo mural niece nail name navy near net nerd next ninth oak oat ocean oil old olive onion only oval open opera opt outer ounce push pagan poker palm point punch pants paper press party pasta patch photo power poem puppy perm petal petri plank plant plus plot pull polar prank print prism proof props pulp pupil quake query quiet quill quilt raft risk radar radio rule ramp range rant robin react roman reply recap relax rope rerun rigor ritzy river stole size said send salt slam silk same steam speed spray scale scan score scrap scope scold squad scorn self ship serve seven share shell shirt shrug siren skirt slang slept slurp small swing smirk snap snare snarl snort speak spent spill sport stage stop stamp stand sting stark start stir storm swirl those tall talon tamer think taper taps trade taste tint theft theme train trap tweet thumb try tidal tiger tilt track trend trial trunk tulip tutor uncle uncut unit unify union upon upper urban used user utter value vapor vegan venue virus vest video voice viral visor vocal volt voter wheat wafer wager wish wagon walk wind wasp watch water wife whole widen wilt womb wing word worry wolf work woven wrist xerox yummy yard year yeast yelp yield yodel yoga zebra zero zesty zippy zone
Takes a binary file on stdin and spits out words, 8 to a line.
with open("word_list.txt","r") as fh: words = [ w.strip() for w in fh.readlines() ] import sys while True: s = sys.stdin.buffer.read(8) if len(s) == 0: break ww = [ words[c+n%2*256] for n, c in enumerate(s) ] print(" ".join(ww))
Let’s make some passphrases:
$ dd if=/dev/urandom bs=8 count=5 status=none | python encode.py ivory stage erase radar ebay wind kept spent enter yeast email video aging yoga deaf talon going mouth cedar storm jury oak from raft found pants hasty query grid oval cycle opera knelt wind early ramp argue widen bacon rigor
Overall I’m pretty happy with the list: the only words which I’ve noticed
so far which seem out of place are the company names
the very similar pair
quilt, and the variably-spelled
It’d be nice to use shorter words over longer words as well. Perhaps some minor tweaks are in order.
Also I just noticed that the list isn’t in alphabetical order, which is not really a big deal but seems kinda nasty.
Proposed improved word list:
acorn acre acts afar affix aged agent agile aging agony aide aids aim alarm alike alive aloe aloft alone amend ample amuse angel anger apple april apron area argue armed armor army arson art atlas atom avert avoid axis bacon baker balmy barn basil baton bats blank blast blend blimp blob blog blurt boil bok bolt bony bribe bring broad broil broke bud bunch bunt bust calm canal candy card case cedar chump civic civil clamp clasp class clay clear cleft clerk cling clip cold come comic cork cost cover craft cramp crank crisp crop crown crust cub cupid cure curl cut cycle dab dad dart deal debt debug decaf decal decor dent dig dimly ditch doing donor down drab drank dress drift drill drum dry dust early earth east eaten ebony echo edge eel elder elf elk elm elude elves email emit empty emu enter envoy equal erase error erupt evade even evict evil evoke fable fact fall fang femur fend fetal fetch fever fifth film final fit five flag fled fling flint flip flirt flyer foam fox frail fray fresh from front frost fruit gap gas gem genre gift given giver glad glass goal golf gong grab grant grasp grass green grew grid grill gut habit halt harm hasty hatch haven hazel help herbs hers hub hug hull human hump hung hunt hurry hurt hut ice icing icon igloo image ion iron item ivory ivy jam jet job jog jolt judge july jump junky jury keep keg kept kilt king kite knee knelt koala ladle lake land last latch left legal lens level lid lilac lily limb line lip liver lunar lure lurk maker mango manor map march mardi marry match malt mom most motor mount mud mug mulch mule mumbo mural nag nail name nap near nerd net next ninth oak oat ocean oil old olive omen only open opera opt ounce outer oval pagan palm pants paper park party patch pep perm pest petal petri plank plant plot plus pod poem poker polar pond prank print prism proof props pry pug pull pulp punk pupil quake query quill quit rabid radar raft ramp rank rant recap relax reply rerun rigor ritzy river robin rope rug ruin rule rust rut salt same scale scan scold score scorn scrap sect self send set seven share shirt shrug silk silo sip siren skip skirt sky slam slang slept slurp small smirk smog snap snare snarl snort speak spent spill sport spot spur stamp stand stark start stem sting stir stole stop storm suds surf swirl tag tall talon tamer tank taper taps tart taste theft thumb tidal tidy tiger tilt tint tiny train trap trek trend trial trunk try tulip tutor uncle uncut unify union unit upon upper urban used user utter value vapor vegan venue vest vice viral virus visor vocal void volt voter wad wafer wager wagon walk wasp watch water widen wife wilt wind wing wiry wok wolf womb wool word work woven wrist xerox yam yard year yeast yelp yield yodel yoga zebra zero zesty zippy zone
… this fixes those problems, and has a slightly shorter average length of 4.4 characters per word, too, for 2.04 bits per character.
This words list is now being used by the “tip” version of Web Wormhole! Okay so not exactly earth-shattering but given the year we’re having …